## Mathematics 3

### Course Outline

#### Number

In grade 3, students work to develop our understanding of numbers up to 1000. Students continue to work with concrete materials, pictures, words, and symbols to help us develop a strong understanding of these numbers. Students learn about place value (ones, tens, and hundreds). For the first time, students begin to work with fractions of one whole. Students

• say the number names forward and back by 1s to 1000
• skip count by 2s, 5s, 10s, and 100s  to 1000
• skip count by 3s and 4s to 100 and by 25s to 200
• identify skip counting patterns when given a number sequence
• count money (coins)
• use ordinal numbers (first to hundredth)
• represent numbers to 1000 using concrete materials, coins, pictures, expressions, words and symbol
• represent a number to 1000 in a variety of ways using concrete materials and symbols, and explain why the representations are equal
• work with concrete materials to prove that 10 ones is the same as one ten; 10 tens is the same as one hundred; and 10 hundreds is the same as one thousand
• read, write and recognize number symbols to 1000
• describe numbers to 1000 in two or more parts (partition)
• put numbers to 1000 in order and compare them in a variety of ways
• use symbols < (greater than) and > (less than) to compare numbers
• estimate the number of objects (up to 1000) in a group
• explain the reasons for our estimates
• choose appropriate estimates
• explore place value (ones, tens, hundreds) to 1000 using concrete materials
• learn to use common fractions to describe real-life situations
• represent fractions using concrete materials, pictures, and symbols
• compare fractions using concrete materials, pictures, words, and symbols

Students recall our basic addition and subtraction facts, and students continue to work to solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of 1-, 2-, and 3-digit numbers. Students begin to learn about the meanings of multiplication and division. Students

• continue to solve story problems to help us understand the meaning of addition and subtraction
• create and solve story problems that connect to our experiences
• model addition and subtraction story problems with concrete materials or pictures
• find and share solutions to addition and subtraction problems
• use strategies to quickly recall addition facts up to 9 + 9
• use strategies to quickly recall subtraction facts up to 18 – 9
• use strategies to mentally add and subtract 2-digit numbers
• use personal strategies to add and subtract 3-digit numbers
• describe and explain our personal strategies for adding and subtracting
• record number sentences that represent how students thought about the problem
• estimate sums and differences
• explain our estimation strategies
• solve story problems to help us understand the meanings of multiplication and division
• model and represent multiplication and division story problems using concrete materials, pictures, and symbols
• create and solve multiplication story problems
• create and solve division story problems
• explore the connection between multiplication and division

#### Patterns and Relations

In grade 3, students use concrete materials, pictures, actions, sounds, and numbers to learn about repeating patterns, increasing (growing) patterns, and decreasing (shrinking) patterns. Students continue to work to develop our understanding of equality and inequality, and students use symbols to record equalities (=) and inequalities (≠).  Students explore the use of a symbol, such as a shape or a question mark, to represent an unknown in an equation. Students

• create and represent increasing (growing) patterns using concrete materials, pictures, sounds, actions, symbols, and numbers
• create and represent decreasing (shrinking) patterns using concrete materials, pictures, sounds, actions, symbols, and numbers
• examine increasing patterns and describe how they grow
• examine decreasing patterns and describe how they decrease (shrink)
• describe increasing or decreasing patterns using a rule
• continue an increasing or a decreasing pattern
• predict what will come next in an increasing or a decreasing pattern
• identify missing parts of an increasing or decreasing pattern
• compare and contrast patterns to explain how they are the same and how they are different
• solve problems with increasing or decreasing patterns
• compare number patterns
• develop our own rule for a given pattern
• create addition and subtraction equations with an unknown to represent story problems
• use symbols to represent an unknown number, for example 3 + ■ = 16
• record number sentences using the equal (=) or not equal (≠) sign
• solve addition and subtraction equations involving an unknown using concrete materials or guess and check

#### Measurement

In grade 3, students read calendars and use them to track days, months, and personal events. Students explore the passage of time and develop an understanding of the relationships between units of time such as seconds and minutes. Students estimate, measure, and record length and mass using standard units (centimetres, metres, grams and kilograms).  Students use measuring tools, such as rulers and scales, to help us measure accurately. Students develop personal meaning for these units of measure. Students begin to explore perimeter. Students

• measure the passage of time using non-standard and standard units of time
• identify activities that can be completed in a given amount of time
• develop personal meaning for minute and hour
• choose units to measure the passage of time and explain our choices
• create a calendar and record day of the week, dates, and personal events
• learn about the relationships among seconds and minutes, minutes and hours, hours and days, and days and months
• use those relationships to solve problems involving time (seconds in a minute, the number of minutes in an hour, number of hours in a day, or the number of days in a given month)
• develop personal referents (meaning) for 1 centimetre (cm), 1 metre (m), 1 gram (g) and 1 kilogram (kg), for example, my fingernail is about 1 cm wide, or a doorknob is about 1 m from the floor
• estimate and measure length using centimetres and metres
• use a ruler to measure length
• use a ruler to draw a line segment of a given length
• prove that 100 centimetres is equal to 1 metre
• estimate and measure mass using grams and kilograms
• use a balance to measure mass
• prove that 1000 grams is equal to one kilogram
• estimate, measure, and record perimeter in centimetres or metres
• create shapes of a given perimeter

#### Geometry

In grade 3, students continue to learn about 2-D shapes (triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and octagons) and 3-D objects (cubes and other prisms, spheres, cones, cylinders, and pyramids). Students name, describe, compare, sort, and create these 2-D shapes and 3-D objects. Students name 2-D shapes according to the number of sides, and students name 3-D objects according to the shape of the base. Students

• use language to describe 3-D objects and 2-D shapes
• describe the characteristics of 2-D shapes (triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and octagons)
• learn to recognize, name, describe, compare, create, and sort 2-D shapes (triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and octagons)
• determine whether a 2-D shape is regular or irregular
• learn to recognize, name, describe, compare, create, and sort 3-D objects (cubes and other prisms, spheres, cones, cylinders, and pyramids)
• describe the characteristics of 3-D objects (cubes and other prisms, spheres, cones, cylinders, and pyramids)
• name 3-D objects (prisms and pyramids) according to the shape of the base, for example, triangular prism
• name 2-D shapes according to the number of sides
• investigate vertices (corners), edges, and faces of 3-D objects
• sort 3-D objects according to the number of faces, edges or vertices

#### Statistics and Probability

In grade 3, students continue to ask questions, and collect and organize data. Students learn to display our data using bar graphs. Students use our bar graphs to answer questions. Students

• collect and record information about questions that interest us
• make decisions on how to ask questions and gather data
• organize the information students collect using tallies, line plots, charts, and lists
• use the information students collect to answer questions
• create bar graphs from the information students collect
• identify the parts of a bar graph and label them correctly
• use our bar graphs to answer questions and draw conclusions
• solve problems by creating and reading bar graphs

Updated August 24, 2021