Mathematics 9

Course Outline

Students in Mathematics 9 will explore the following topics:

  • Number (N)
  • Patterns and Relations (PR)
  • Measurement (M)
  • Geometry (G)
  • Statistics and Probability (SP)

Mathematics 7–9 Curriculum Sections

This document include sections of the curriculum guide sorted by unit.


Students will be expected to demonstrate number sense.

  • demonstrate an understanding of powers with integral bases (excluding base 0) and whole number exponents by:
    - representing repeated multiplication using powers,
    - using patterns to show that a power with an exponent of zero is equal to one,
    - solving problems involving powers.
  • demonstrate an understanding of operations on powers with integral bases (excluding base 0) and whole number exponents.
  • demonstrate an understanding of rational numbers by comparing and ordering rational numbers and solving problems that involve arithmetic operations on rational numbers.
  • explain and apply the order of operations, including exponents, with and without technology.
  • determine the exact square root of positive rational numbers.
  • determine an approximate square root of positive rational numbers. 



Patterns: Students will be expected to use patterns to describe the world and solve problems.
Variables and Equations: Students will be expected to represent algebraic expressions in multiple ways.

  • generalize a pattern arising from a problem-solving context using a linear equation and verify by substitution.
  • graph a linear relation, analyze the graph, and interpolate or extrapolate to solve problems. 
  • model and solve problems using linear equations.
  • explain and illustrate strategies to solve single variable linear inequalities with rational coefficients within a problem-solving context. 



Students will be expected to use direct and indirect measure to solve problems.

  • solve problems and justify the solution strategy, using the following circle properties: 
    - The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.
    - The measure of the central angle is equal to twice the measure of the inscribed angle subtended by the same arc.
    - The inscribed angles subtended by the same arc are congruent.
    - A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangency.



3-D Objects and 2-D Shapes: Students will be expected to describe the characteristics of 3-D objects and 2-D shapes and analyze the relationships among them.
Transformations: Students will be expected to describe and analyze position and motion of objects and shapes.

  • determine the surface area of composite 3-D objects to solve problems.
  • demonstrate an understanding of similarity of polygons.
  • draw and interpret scale diagrams of 2-D shapes.
  • demonstrate an understanding of line and rotation symmetry.



Data Analysis: Students will be expected to collect, display, and analyze data to solve problems.
Chance and Uncertainty: Students will be expected to use experimental or theoretical probabilities to represent and solve problems involving uncertainty.

  • describe the effect on the collection of data of bias, use of language, ethics, cost, time and timing, privacy, and cultural sensitivity.
  • select and defend the choice of using either a population or a sample of a population to answer a question.
  • develop and implement a project plan for the collection, display, and analysis of data by:
  • formulating a question for investigation.
  • choosing a data collection method that includes social considerations.
  • selecting a population or a sample.
  • collecting the data.
  • displaying the collected data in an appropriate manner.
  • drawing conclusions to answer the question. 
  • demonstrate an understanding of the role of probability in society.

Updated August 24, 2021