Mathematics Essentials 10

Course Outline

Mathematics Essentials 10 is a graduation level high school mathematics course. Students will explore the following topics:

  • Earning and Purchasing
  • Banking
  • Measurement
  • Geometry
  • Transportation and Travel
  • Probability

Earning and Purchasing

  • understand purchasing power.
  • determine the renumeration for chosen occupations, including salary and benefits, and evaluate it in terms of purchasing power and living standards.
  • solve problems involving various ways that an employee can be paid using calculators or appropriate software.
  • explain the difference between gross pay and net pay, and describe possible payroll deductions.
  • calculate gross pay and net pay for given situations.
  • read and apply payroll deduction tables.
  • identify the information and documents required for filing a personal income tax return, and explain why they are required (optional).
  • describe the effects on personal spending habits of the frequency of pay period.
  • estimate and calculate the unit prices of comparable items to determine the best buy.
  • explain indirect and direct forms of taxation.
  • solve problems involving the estimation and calculation of provincial and federal sales taxes.
  • estimate and calculate selling price, discounts, and taxes.
  • provide the correct change for an amount offered and minimize the number of coins/bills.
  • select amounts to offer for a given charge to minimize the number of coins/bills received in the change.
  • identify and explain the advantages and disadvantages of various plans to make purchases.
  • identify, calculate, and compare the interest costs involved in making purchases under various plans.
  • make decisions regarding the purchase of costly items by identifying and ranking criteria for the comparison of possible choices.
  • make decisions regarding the payment options for purchases.
  • identify various incentives to make purchases.
  • estimate and calculate the price in Canadian funds of items bought in or ordered from another country.



  • understand transactions such as depositing, transferring and withdrawing money,  writing cheques and withdrawing money.
  • understand how interest is calculated by a bank.
  • calculate simple and compound interest.
  • recognize patterns in tables where simple interest has been calculated.



  • demonstrate a working knowledge of the metric system and imperial system.
  • measure lengths accurately, using metric system and the imperial system.
  • estimate distances in metric units and in imperial units by applying personal referents.
  • estimate capacities in metric units by applying personal referents.
  • estimate, with reasonable accuracy, large numbers that are illustrated visually and explain the strategies used.
  • recognize and apply the patterns in the metric system.
  • recognize and apply the common fraction patterns found on an Imperial ruler.
  • recognize and find equivalencies among common fractions and percent.
  • compare and order common fractions and percent.
  • rename common fractions.
  • round rational numbers and percent in contexts.



  • identify the first 5 regular polygons and understand basic properties (# of sides, lines of symmetry, and definitions of geometric terms).
  • describe and apply translations, reflections, rotations, and dilatations as they relate to symmetry and design, with the aid of technology.
  • determine (through investigations, using concrete materials and technology) the characteristics of shapes that will tile the plane with a reflecting pattern.
  • create designs involving tiling patterns (e.g., Escher-type designs, wallpaper or fabric designs), using technology (e.g., dynamic geometry software, design or drawing software).
  • analyse the geometric aspects of logos and design.
  • create a personal logo, using the mathematics of symmetry, translations, reflections, rotations, or dilations, with the aid of technology.


Transportation and Travel

  • describe the procedures and costs involved in obtaining a driver’s license.
  • describe the costs if failing to operate a vehicle responsibly.
  • calculate the fixed and variable costs involved in owning and operating a vehicle.
  • compare the procedures, costs, advantages, and disadvantages involved in buying a new versus a used vehicle.
  • explain the factors and costs involved in insuring a vehicle.
  • make personal decisions regarding the best form of transportation.
  • compare the costs involved in buying versus leasing the same new vehicle.
  • compare the costs of owning or leasing and maintaining vehicle with the costs of other forms of transportation.
  • complete a project involving the purchase or lease of a new vehicle or the purchase of a used vehicle, including the cost of insurance.



  • express probabilities of simple events as the number of favourable outcomes divided by the total number of outcomes.
  • express probabilities as fractions, decimals, and percent, and interpret probabilities expressed in each of these forms.
  • predict and describe the results obtained in carrying out probability experiments related to familiar situations involving chance.
  • compare predicted and experimental results for familiar situations involving chance, using technology to extend the number of experimental trials.
  • simulate familiar situations involving chance and explain the choice of simulation
  • interpret information about probabilities to assist in making informed decisions in a variety of situations.
  • interpret and assess probabilistic information used in the media and in common conversation.

Updated August 24, 2021